- recognition of difficulties;
- specialist diagnosis;
- organization of aid.
The model system of prevention and assistance is a development of the three levels of the therapeutic assistance system in Poland.First level: home support provided by parents under the guidance of a teacher Second level: corrective and compensatory team at school.
Third level: individual therapy
The model system of prevention and support for students with dyslexia assumes:
- observation of all children with disharmonious psychomotor development in the preschool period, especially five-year-olds;
- screening children at risk of dyslexia from the first stage of education to even out their start in school;
- to cover all students with learning disabilities for the diagnosis of dyslexia;
providing specialist assistance to students with diagnosed developmental dyslexia depending on the degree and nature of school failure;
- training teachers in the field of providing necessary psychological and pedagogical help to people with dyslexia, in particular in the field of recognizing symptoms of dyslexia and adapting the requirements to the special educational needs of students;
- involving parents of dyslexic children in the process of psychological and pedagogical help by providing them with knowledge about the problem and ways of dealing with it.
Students socially maladjusted, at risk of social maladjustment
Social maladjustment is a personality deviation caused by biopsychological or environmental factors that have a negative impact on social contacts, activity and harmony of an individual’s life, preventing them from constructive socialization, active education and successful implementation of life tasks.
It is expressed in a negative attitude towards social norms and socially recognized values, which is the main syndrome of this phenomenon (it also indicates the inability to assimilate, accommodate and identify with goals and values). It is an expression of the difficult internal situation of a socially maladjusted individual, and educational difficulties resulting from social maladjustment are characterized by a significant persistence of antisocial attitudes.
Due to the sometimes several-year delay in the implementation of compulsory education and the resulting difficulties, the following supporting forms are used in educational activities:
individual re-education programs taking into account students’ development deficits,
compensation teams offering help in the field of re-education of teaching negligence,
various forms of psychological and pedagogical help,
additional foreign language lessons.
Very gifted students
An exceptionally gifted student is highly intelligent, creative, and generally highly motivated to learn. There are at least two criteria for identifying outstanding abilities in students:
- psychological, including the use of psychological tests examining the level of intelligence and special abilities,
- pedagogical, referring to the achievements of the student.
The needs resulting from his or her special intellectual and emotional abilities should be respected and the principles of pedagogical work should be applied, such as observation, individualization, not succumbing to stereotypes, building proper relationships with students and educating to success. This can be done, for example:
- individual program and course of study,
- early school start,
- mid-year promotions,
- extracurricular activities, including interest clubs,
- out-of-school activities (youth community centers, bonfires, participation in selected
- activities at another school or university, etc.),
- contests, tournaments and subject olympiads,
- pedagogical innovations and experiments,
- psychological and pedagogical assistance.